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Hormones affect virtually every aspect of human bodily function, from metabolism and energy levels through to the way our bodies respond to stress and injury. But the endocrine system which controls hormones is a mystery to many people.

There most common endocrine disease in the US is diabetes, which affects 10.5% of the population. So it’s a good idea to understand some basics about the endocrine system, to help you stay healthy and prevent illness.

Read on to learn more about the function and anatomy of the endocrine system and how various hormones affect different systems of the body.

What Is the Endocrine System?  

The endocrine system consists of glands that produce hormones. These hormones are then released into the blood, to travel to other tissues to cause a reaction.

The function of the endocrine system is to regulate how much of each hormone is secreted and released. The body uses hormones to control different processes, including respiration, metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, and growth.  

Hormones also control our energy levels and mood. When glands produce the wrong amount of hormones or at the wrong time, diseases can develop that impact every element of daily life. Some of these diseases can be treated and controlled with medication. 

Endocrine System Organs

The endocrine system consists of several organs that serve different functions in ensuring that the balance of hormones within the body is correct at all times. These organs are also known as glands and produce different hormones to support the endocrine system function.  

Pituitary Gland

This is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull below the brain. It’s known as the master control gland, as it secretes several different hormones and controls many of the other glands in the body. 

The pituitary gland controls ovulation and menstruation for women and produces hormones that send signals to the reproductive organs to make sex hormones. It secretes endorphins as well, which reduce pain feelings. 


This gland is located in the lower central part of the brain and provides a link between the endocrine and nervous system. It gathers information from the brain about the environment, including temperature and light, and sends it to the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus has an impact on water balance and thirst, hunger, mood, sleep, and sex drive. It also affects blood pressure and temperature.  

Pineal Gland

The pineal gland secretes a substance called melatonin that helps to regulate sleep cycles, affecting when you go to sleep at night and what time you naturally wake in the morning. It also influences sexual development, along with several other glands.

Thyroid Gland 

This gland is shaped like a butterfly and is located in the lower neck below the voice box. The thyroid plays its part in the endocrine system function by helping to regulate metabolism. 

The thyroid produces hormones that control the rate that the body burns fuel from food to make energy. More thyroid hormones in the bloodstream mean that the body burns fuel more quickly. 

Having an underactive thyroid can lead to sluggish metabolism and difficulty losing weight, whereas an overactive thyroid means your body is producing more thyroid hormones than it needs. If you’re concerned about this in relation to your own health, you should find out more on metabolic testing.


This gland is located in the upper part of the chest, behind the breastbone. It contributes to the immune system by producing white blood cells that recognize foreign substances entering the body and help to fight infection. 


These glands are located in the abdomen, one on top of each kidney, They form a critical function in the endocrine system, responding to stress and affecting the fluid balance in the body, as well as making a small amount of sex hormone. 

The adrenals produce epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, which increases heart rate and blood pressure as a reaction to stress. It takes glucose out of storage within the body, to use as fuel in a fight or flight response. 


The pancreas is one of the endocrine system organs which people are more familiar with, due to its link to diabetes. It’s located behind the stomach and is part of the digestive system as well as having an endocrine system function.  

The main hormone produced by the pancreas is insulin, which is secreted after a person consumes carbohydrates (in starch or sugar form) and controls the level of glucose in the blood. 

People who are unable to make enough insulin or whose bodies can’t process it properly develop diabetes. This disease is usually diagnosed through tests to detect glucose in the blood and urine.

Treatment for diabetes depends on the type of disease and severity. Often people are advised to make changes to their diet and may need to inject insulin regularly to regulate their glucose levels.   

Reproductive Gonads 

It’s not commonly known that the ovaries and testes form part of the endocrine system. They both produce sex hormones, mainly testosterone in men and estrogen and progesterone in women.

The sex hormones in both sexes send signals to the body about when to start puberty. In women, they also regulate the menstrual cycle and play a major part in pregnancy. In men, they produce sperm.

Factors Affecting the Health of the Endocrine System 

The health of the endocrine system is affected by several factors, including genetics, aging, stress, the environment, and certain diseases and conditions. 

 You can keep the endocrine system healthy by ensuring that you get plenty of exercise and maintain a nutritious diet. You should also make sure your doctor is aware if you have any family history of endocrine problems, such as thyroid disease or diabetes.

You should seek medical advice if you are needing to urinate more often, feel constantly thirsty despite drinking a lot of water, or if you feel constantly tired and weak or are gaining or losing a lot of weight unexpectedly. 

Check out the other articles on the blog for more great health and well-being information to help you stay fit and strong.

Adam Legas

Adam Legas

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